Rajput - Muslims Relations (1200 – 1526 A.D.)


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Rajput - Muslims Relations (1200 – 1526 A.D.)

The period of Delhi Sultanate may partly be described as a period of Rajput principalities who had not so far submitted to the Muslims or who had thrown off the yoke of allegiance at the earliest opportunity. A study of the important Rajput ruling houses viz-a-viz, the Sultans of Delhi will make the picture clear.

At the time of the Turkish invasion, many of well known “Rajput” clans of the later times had come to be recognized as belonging to the Kshatriya caste. It is equally interesting to note that some of the clans had begun to connect themselves with the Sun Moon, Fire, and Sea etc., in a bid to prove their high martial status.

In 1193 A.D., the Muslims captured Delhi, resulting in the defeat and death of Prithviraja Chauhan and Jayachandra Gahadvala in the battle of Tarain and Chandwar respectively. Now started a period of conquest on the part of the Muslim Sultans who, with in a short span of a few years, were able to capture the greater part off northern India – The Rajput rulers on the other hand, partly due to their internal rivalries and partly due to their sub-divisions, considerably weakened their strength and the three contemporaries of Muhammad of Ghor viz., Prithviraja III, Mularaja II and Bhima II, and the Paramaras Devapala and Dharavarsha (of Malwa and Abu respectively) individually turned out to be too weak to withstand the Ghorian attacks.

The fall of the Gurjara – Prathihara empire had brought many other dynasties to the fore-front, who carved out their own independent or
semi-independent principalities in Rajasthan and elsewhere. The Chauhans, one of the most prominent clans, established themselves in the region around Sakambhari (modern Sambhar). The dynasty later extended its area upto Jangaladesha (present Bikaner and northern Marwar). The early epigraphs of the dynasty show the Chauhan rulers to have acknowledged the Pratihara over lordship.

 

The Chauhans of Ranthambhor and Delhi Sultans

After the subjugation of Chauhan kingdom of Ajmer and Delhi by Shihabuddin and his lieutenant Qutbuddin Aibak, Prithviraja Chauhan’s son and successor, Govindaraja was appointed Muslim nominee on the ancestral throne. Govindaraja’s rule over Ajmer was not favoured by Hariraka, probably due to his acting as a Muslim vassal and as a result, repeated attempts were made by Prithviraja’s brother Hariraja to dislodge Govindaraja. Hariraja was apparently dissatisfied with the Muslim rule and of his nephew acting as their nominee he attacked Govindaraja and succeeded in driving him away from Ajmer. However, due to timely intervention of Qutbuddin, Hariraja was re-insalled on the throne of Ajmer. Hariraja made another attempt by sending Jatwan (Jaitra – perhapls his general) towards Delhi. The second attempt too failed and after some resistance, Hariraja was obliged to take shelter inside the fortress, which being hard pressed by the Delhi forces, fell and consequently Hariraja immolated himself.

By the close of 12th century, Govindaraja as a result of serious attacks by Hariraja, vacated his ancestral place and established himself at Ranthambhor. It is clear from all Muslims and Rajputs accounts that Hariraja succeeded in depriving Govindaraja of the territory of Ajmer whereupon the latter carved out an independent kingdom.

The final battle was fought near the foot of Mt. Abu between Rai Vallahanadeva and Dharavarsha, the Paramara feudatories of Bhima II of Gujarat. Qutbuddin’s strategy and farsightedness won the day in battle and the Rajputs forces were comlpletely routed. After the victoryAibak marched unopposed to Narhwala, which too was completely sacked.

The repeated attempts on the part of the Chauhans during the early years of establishment of Delhi Sultanate, to regain their lost territories failed not only due to their reliance on numerical strength of forces, rather than skill, fighting strength and methods of warfare, but also because of their energies being exhausted against the neighboring kingdoms, notably, the Chaulukyas, Chandellas and Gahadvallas.

In a short span of about six years Aibak thus led successful invasions into most of the Rajput territories. However, due to his policy of
non-annexation, authority over the conquered Rajput states was a superficial one – His distant and nominal control could hardly bring any significant change in the Rajput ruling order and much went on as usual.

 

Iltutmish and his Successors

Ajmer and Nagaur was possibly the only two principal towns in possession of Iltutmish at the beginning of his reign. An inscription on the mosque known as Adhai – Din – ka Jhopra at Ajmer records its construction at the order of the Sultan. Most of the Rajput territories occupied earlier had not only asserted their independence but several Rajput chiefs even carved out new principalities during the early years of iltutmish’s reign.

Jalore

The kingdom of Jalore was one of the important possessions of the Chauhans. It appears that after the attack of Qutbuddin on Nadol in 1197 A.D., the Chauhans under Kirtipala migrated towards Jalore, where the latter succeeded in establishing a new kingdom of Jalore. From its foundation by Kirtipala up to its last ruler Kanhadadera, is appears predominantly in the history of Rajasthan. Many of its princes had to contest with the Sultans of Delhi in a bid to retain possession of this small kingdom. Like the kingdom of Ranthambhor it saw its rise and fall during the period of Delhi Sultanate.

The kingdom founded by Kirtipala was successfully retained by his successors, Samar Simha Simla and Udaya Simha. The latter is credited with having taken possession of several adjoining territories (in possession of the Chaulukyas and the Paramaras). The increasing power of the Jalore Chauhans, ultimately brought Udaya Simha and Iltutmish face to face in the formers’ desert capital. According to Tajul Maasir, the contemporary Persian account, Udaya Simha took shelter in the forests and after being hard pressed sued for peace. The terms included the offer of one hundred camels and 20 horses, for being restored to his fortress. It may thus be safely assumed that Jalore campaign did not yield the desired result, probably because of its geographical position.

Though rulers apparently accepted the overlordship of the Sultan, the kingdom was never brought under complete subjugation. Within five years, when Iltutmish invaded the Guhilots of Mewar, Udaya Simla acted in league with the Gujarat and Marwar princess and the Sultan had to retreat without an encounter. The traditional as it was, however, only under Sultan Alauddin that the fortress was annexed to the Delhi Sultanate.

Ranthambore

The expansionist activities of the Ranthambore chief probably compelled Sultan Iltutmish to lead an expedition against him in 1226 A.D. According to Minhaj, the fort fell into the hands of Sultan Iltutmish after the siege of a few months. The fortress, was annexed & given to Delhi Sultanate and the death of Sultan Iltutmish gave a fresh lease of independence to the Chauhans. Under Vagbhatta, the Chauhans either freed Ranthambore or pressed the Muslim Garrison too hard, thereby compelling Sultan Raziah to dispatch her commander sometime before 1238 A.D. to the rescue of the garrison.

Mandor

The political history of Mandor is not very clear. Some records of the Chauhans of Nadol have been found at this place. Earlier it appears to have been in possession of the Pratiharas. One of the epigraphs refers to Lakshamana as the founder of the Nadol line of Chauhans. Mandor thus served as an important outpost of the Nadol Chauhans during the reign of Vigrahapala, Asarjas, Sahajapala, Alhandeva, Kelhana and Chamundaraya, after which it passed into the hands of the Chauhans of Jalore. A year subsequent to the invasion of Ranthambore, Sultan Iltutmish marched against the Mandor fortress and captured it. However, it appears that it was not annexed since it had to be reconquered by the later Sultans.

Mewar

The Guhilots had established themselves in Mewar as early as the last quarter of the sixth century A.D. Chittor, the early seat of Guhilas, held a strategic position. Since its boundaries touched the Sultanate’s possession of Sapadalaksha, Sultanas could hardly tolerate a powerful kingdom unmolested.

The contemporary of Sultan Iltutmish at the seat of Mewar was Guhila Jaitya Simha. His dates range from 1213 to 1250, he is reported to have fought both with Sultan Iltutmish and Nasiruddin Mahmud.

According to Sanskrit play Hammira-mada-mardana, Mlechchha warriors on their way to Gujarat (against King Viradhavala) entered Nagda and devastated Mewar region. The Muslim writers are silent about this campaign. It is possibly due to the failure of the campaign and the defeat of the Sultan at the hands of a petty chief as indicated in the epigraph. Chirwa and Mt Abu inscriptions boastfully record the curbing of the pride of the Turushkas. The uninterrupted hold pf Mewar under its chiefs Jaitra Simha, Teja Simha and Samar Singh nullified an unsuccessful attack on Chittor by Sultan Ghiasuddin Balban. The Mt. Abu inscription of V.S. 1342 credits the last mentioned Guhila Chief with a victory over the Turushkas. This obviously refers to an armed expedition of the Muslims against Gujarat in which Samar Singh Guhila probably helped the Gujarat Chief Sarangadeva and saved the Gujarat territory from a complete devastation. Although the Persian sources are silent about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt about the event, the testimony of the inscriptions leave little doubt about a Guhila – Musi im conflict or at least the claims of independence set forth by the Guhila chiefs. The real threat to Mewar, however, came during the Khalji period.

Marwar

The descendants of the Rashtrakuta house of Kannauj are said to have established themselves around Pali (in Marwar) as a result of the Muhammadan occupation of their ancestral kingdom and many of them, including the founder of the line, Rao Sihaji, died fighting with the Muslims.

While these facts are based on the tradition, subsequent relations between the Rathors of Marwar and the contemporary Sultans of Delhi are based on Persian and Rajasthani sources and are supported by epigraphic evidence.

Possibly some Rathore Chiefs settled in Marwar region even before the traditional migration of Rao Sihiji and his lieutenants. But most of the region at least up to the first decade of the 13th century was in possession of the Chauhans and the other Rajput tribes like Guhilas. From one of the inscriptions it is evident that Rao Sihaji succeeded in establishing his foot-hold around the region of the Pali which he held till his death in V.S. 1273 i.e. 1215 A.D.

By the close of 12th century Chauhana Kelhana and jayat Simha etc., held the territories of Pali and Nadol, as feudatories of the
Chaulukyas of Gujarat. It seems that Chauhans held Nadol at least up to V.S. 1288 (1291 A.D). The Chauhan Chiefs Kelhana and Kirtipala fought against the forces of Muhammad of Ghor, along with their overlord Chaulukya Bhima II, near Kaydra village in modern Sirohi.

Similarly, Jayat Simha, son and successor of Chauhana Kalhana, vacated his possessions of Pali and Nadol and joined hands with Paramara Dhavarsha of Abu against the invading Muslims forces under Qutbuddin Aibak, but was defeated and probably slain in this battle. Again an epigraph found at Manglana (Marwar) speaks of friendly relations between Sultans Iltutmish and Allahandeval, son of Govidaraja of the Ranthambhor Chauhan.

To review briefly, leaving aside Ajmer and Nagaur region in Rajasthan and the region lying between Delhi and Ajmer , there is no direct
evidence of Sultanate’s hold on other Rajput principalities. There were also some peaceful Muslims settlements in the region during this period. The Muslims Sufis, particularly the Chishti Silsilah had established in Ajmer during this period and occupied the Marwar region also with its seat at Nagaur.

 

Khalji Occpation of the Rajput Principalities

The Khalji rule proved much stronger for the Rajput principalities than the earlier Turkis Sultans. A new wave of invasions and conquests began, which ended only when practically the whole of India had been bought under the sway of the Delhi kingdom.

Sultan Jalaluddin, the first Khalji ruler, soon after his accession, marched with a large force towards Ranthambore. He made an unsuccessful attempt to capture the fort in 1291 A.D. The fortress was then in the possession of Rana Hammira. Although the Sultan was successful in some initial conquest over Thain etc., but the tough resistance offered by Hammira’s forces compelled the Sultan to return without conquering the fortress.

 

Sultan Alauddin and Ranthambore

With the accession of Sultan Alauddin Khalji, the political relations of Delhi Sulanate with Ranthambore entered a new phase. The Sultan is reported to have decided to reduce the adjoining Rajput territories at the advice of Qazi Alaul-Mulk. However, it was the strategic importance of the fort, its proximity to Delhi and the ambitions nature of the Sultan which led to an early attack by Alauddin on the Ranthambore fort. The immediate reason was of course, the shelter given to the new Mussalmans under the leadership of Muhammad Shah by Hammira. Sultan Alauddin Khalji dispatched Ulugh Khan towards Ranthambhor with an army of 10,000, along with Nusrat khan to assist him. Hammira, himslf being engaged in a Munivrata, sent his general Bhim Singh and Dharam Singh to oppose the royal forces. In their earlier encounters with the Muslim forces, the Rajput generals attained some victories. However, in a battle fought near “Himduat Pass”, the Rajput forces were defeated and Bhima was killed.

Sultan Alauddin, enraged at the preliminary defeat of Ulugh Khan, sent letters to all the adjoining territories for sending reinforcements and once again the two brothers started for Ranthambore. The terms of treaty like presenting of elephants, horses, and giving Hammira’s daughter in marriage to Sultan, were refused. Meanwhile, in of the engagements that ensued, Nusrat Khan lost is life when a shot from Maghrabi was discharged from within the fort wall.

Many measures were adopted to reduce the fort but of no avail. In the meantime, Alauddin is reported to have won over Ratipala, Hammira’s well-known commander to his side. The situation further deteriorated due to insufficient quantity of grains in the fort. As a last resort, a funeral pyre was lit for all the wives of Hammira to perish in it. Hammira came out of the fort along with the remaining followers. In a close fight, Hammira fell along with all his followers including Muhammad Shah in V.S. 1357/1301 A.D.

After its fall, Ranthambhor was entrusted to Ulugh Khan and the Sultan himself returned to Delhi. With this ended the Ranthambhor line of the Chauhans, who had all along successfully resisted incursions into their kingdom.

 

The Conquest of Chittor

About two years after the fall of Ranthambore the Sultan decided to reduce Chittor which had gained prominence during the course of the 13rd century.

In 1299 A.D. a large Khalji army had passed close to Mewar. Since its object was the conquest of Gujarat, the Khalji commanders did not make any serious attempt to subjugate Mewar, the Major onslaught, however, came in 1303 A.D. in which the Sultan personally led the expedition and pitched his camp outside the fortress. The siege seems to have negotiated for peace, but the inmates continued the struggle and finally Chittor fell on 25th August, 1303. More than 30,000 Rajput soldiers were put to sword. The place was renamed Khizrabad and handed over to Prince Khizr Khan.

Padmini Affair


The story of Sultan Alauddin’s conquest of Chittor would be incomplete without a reference to the queen Padmini, who is associated with the events leading to the sack of Chittor., The traditional story finds mention in Padmawat of Malik Muhammad Jaysi and is followed by many Muslim as well as Rajput bardic chronicles. It may, however, be stated that it was Sultan Alauddin’s lust for power, territorial subjugation, rather than the beautiful Padmini, as the object behind the Sultans’s invasion of Chittor. To a strong and cruel ruler like Alauddin, who cherished desire for world conquest, the independent existence of Chittor near his kingdom could hardly be tolerated. A Persian inscription of 1310 A.D., From Chittor suggests Khalji hold of the territory up to last the year of the epigraphs. This may refute interesting but unhistorical bardic account of Prince Khizr Khan’s recall from Chittor and bestowal of his territories upon Sonigara Chauhans. The bardic story forfeits any credence with the discovery of a Persian inscription of Sultan Ghiyasuddin Tughluq’s period and another inscription of 18th September 1325 A.D., from Chittor. Malik Asududdin who is mentioned in the inscription was cousin of Sultan Muhammad Tughluq and must have held Chittor up to at least the accession of Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq.

Jaisalmer

The Bhati principality of Jaisalmer practically remained independent of Muslim influence during the thirteenth century. However, epigraphic evidence coupled with the bardic accounts, suggests a Khaiji invasion of Jaisalmer sometime during the first decade of the fourteenth century. Nainisi relates the dispatch of Malik Kamaluddin Gurg and Kafur to reduce Jaisalmer fort. A Sanskrit Prashasti from Jaisalmer mentions the recapture of Jaisalmer fort from the Mlechchhas by Cheta Simha. The mention of the names of Kamalduddin and Malik Kafur in siege operations lends support to the underlying authority of the bardic account of Khalji occupation of Jaisalmer.

Siwana

Apart from Chittor and Ranthambore forts, Alauddin also reduced the region of Marwar containing two notable fortresses of Jalore and Siwana held by Songara Chauhan, Kanhad Dev.

Sultan Alauddin sent Kamaluddin Gurg in 1308 to invade Siwana, which was held by Satal Deva, a feudatoury of the Songara Chauhan of Jalore. The siege lasted for quite a long period before the garrison was reduced to submission. Satal Deva made an unsuccessful attempt to flee towards Jalore but was captured and put to death. Khusrau puts the date of this event on 10th November, 1308 A, D.

Jalore

The last prominent Rajput state Rajasthan reduced by Alauddin was chauhan Khanhadadeva’s kingdom of Jalore. The first penetration of the Khalji forces into Jalore was conducted as early as the third year of Sultans ‘reign. The object, however, was the invasion of Gujarat. On their return march from Gujarat, there was a serious uprising in the Muslim army near Jalore over the issue of distribution of one – fifth of the spoils. Many rebellious Muslims, when hard pressed, fled to join the adjoining Rais and Ranas.

Kanhadadeva’s independent existence and hostile attitude attracted the attention of the Sultan in 1305 when Delhi troops marched
towards Jalore and besieged the fortress. The Kanhadadevaprabandha and other Rajput accounts mentions in detail the defense preparations carried on by the Sonigaras. The garrison was subjected to starvation and utmost misery. Flames of Jauhar rose high in which Sonigara queens consigned themselves. Kanhadadeva came out of the fortress and died fighting against the Imperial forces in 1311-12 A.D.

Bundi

The early history of the Hada Chauhans who established themselves at Bundi during the period of Delhi Sultanate, is closely associated with Chauhans of Sakambhari, Nadol and Jalore, from whom they sprang during the middle of 14th century. According to the traditional accounts, Rao Deva Singh Hada, second in succession to Rao Hada, captured Bundi tract (later known Hadoti) from the Minas sometime about V.S. 1398. The kingdom either remained as an independent principality or under the partial control of the Guhilot chiefs of Mewar. Sultan Iltutmish is reported to have sent Malik Aitmur in 1227 –28 A.D. against the Hindus. A second expedition was led during the reign of Sultan Nasiruddin Mahmud. Balban while at his iqta of Nagaur in 1256, proceeded to invade the territories of Ranthambhor, Bundi and Chittor.

It is also stated that Rao Deva Singh Hada attended the court of Sultan Sikandar Lodi but the dates of the Hada chiefs suggest that he must have been a contemporary of Sultan Muhammad Tughluq.

Marwar

Like Mewar, the Ranthore state of Marwar too became prominent during this period. From its foundation by Rao Siha during the last quarter of the thirteenth century to Rao Chunda, the history of Marwar was a period of struggle for existence.

Like other Rajput states, the principality of Marwar took full advantage of the weak Tughluq and the Saiyyid rulers. The expansionist designs of Rao Chunda, engaged Zafar Khan of Gujarat who besieged Mandor in 1396, which had been occupied earlier by the Rathore Chief.

The invasion of Timur gave a further lease to the Rathore Chief, who now occupied several Muslim stronghold like Nagaur, Khatu, Didwana, Sambhar, Ajmer and Nadol. The principality of Nagaur, however, remained a bone of contention between the Rathors and Muslims and the subsequent events show that it frequently changed hand between the two. The raids over the adjoining Muslims and Rajput territories continued when Rana Kumbha and Ranamal Rathore became rulers in their respective territories i.e. Mewar and Marwar.

Kyam Khanis

Kyam khan Raso and Nainsi Khyat refer to the rise of the Kyam Khani Chauhan over the region now called Shekhawati. Probably the Chauhans of the region, which included modem districts of Jhunjhunu and Churu, were converted to Islam during the period of Sultan Feroz Tughluq.

After tracing the geneology of the early Chauhan rulers, the Raso refers to the rule of Tihunpala and his son Mota Rai at Dadreva. It was Mota Rai’s son Karam Chand who was converted to Islam by Sultan Feroz Tughluq and renamed Qayam Khan or Kyam Khan.
Mewar Many Rajput principalities taking advantage of the weak successors of Sultan Alauddin, asserted their independence and some of the new dynasties also up during the same period.

Mewar asserted her independence during the same period and the foundation of a second Guhila dynasty was laid by Hammira who drew out Vanvira Sonigara from the fort of Chittor.

Hammira is credited with fighting successfully against the Muslim and raiding distant principalities. The Mewar house emerged from her isolation under able rulers like Lakha, Mokal and Kumbha, the last of whom extended his territories by fighting against the Rajputs and neighbouring Muslim principalities of Nagaur, Malwa and Gujarat. His lifelong struggle and achievements ranked him as one of the greatest rulers of medieval Mewar.

Mewar’s glorious period continued under Kumbha and his successors till Rana Sangram Singh, popularly known as Rana Sanga. Although Sanga inherited a big and stable kingdom yet he kept himself engaged in wars with his neighbors and almost succeeded in establishing his authority over practically the major part of modern Rajasthan.

The Lodi rulers, on the other hand, were active in extending their hold over Malwa dependencies. The capture of Chanderi and Marwar belonging to Gwalior, gave them an advantageous position and a conflict with Sisodia Rana, who was equally ambitious, was only a matter of time.

The decaying kingdom of Malwa during the period under review, gave a favorable chance to Rana, who took up the cause of medina Rai after defeating both the Sultans to Delhi and Gujarat. Sanga’s a activities became a permanent danger to the Lodi empire.

By the closing years of the Lodi rule, Rana’s ambitions had so greatly grown that he sent an envoy to Babar in a bid to form an alliance with him and synchronize his own attack on Agar with that of Babar on Delhi. For Babar, it was favorable opportunity and after capturing Lahore and Dipalpur (1524) he finally succeeded in defeating and killing Ibrahim Lodi at the battlefield of Panipat which put an end to the Sultanate rule of India.

The Babar – Rajput alliance, however, did not materialize. Rana Sanga who was equally resourceful and war – like chief could grow very dangerous. He was well known for his claims of supremacy. Again Babar could master support of the local afghan Chiefs by waging a war against the Rana and giving it the color of a Jihad. The so-called alliance thus failed as it was finally defeated, thus leaving the field open to Babar.

 

Conclusion

A number of Rajput classes which emerged before the period of the Sultans of Delhi, ended their political career even before the Ghorian occupation of Delhi. Some of these were liquidated by the strong Turkish and the Khalji Sultans. Some of them, however, taking advantage of the political conditions of the post- Timur period, re-asserted their independence and continued to play an important role in the region for a considerable period.

Politically, the Ghorian invasion of northern India resulted in a ‘feverish’ military activity amongst the various clan chiefs. The Delhi sultans’ pressure on the Rajputs chiefs continued in various degrees during the period under review. A number of Delhi Sultans, Particularly Qutbuddin Aibak, Iltutmish, Balban. Alauddin Khalji etc., succeeded in reducing several Rajput principalities such as Ajmer, Ranthambhor, Chittor, Jalore, Jaisalmer and Bayana etc., annexing the important ‘Rajput’ ruling houses like the Chauhans, Guhilas, Bhatis, Rathors and Paramaras.

The period also witnessed the rise of a number of new ruling houses, particularly in Rajasthan such as Bundi, Marwar, Ranthambore, arid Bayana etc. In the last mentioned principality, the Jadon Bhatis were replaced by the Auhadis and the Khanzada chiefs, who continued to rule over the region in semi – independent capacity till the end of the Delhi Sultanate.

Some other principalities such as Chittor, which had earlier been annexed to the Sultanate, re – asserted independence. The rulers of this house not only succeeded in regaining their lost territories but also in extending their territories at the cost of Sultans of Delhi or other local chiefs. The Tughluq, Saiyyid and the Lodi Sultans failed to curb their growing power. The Sisodia Rana Sanga succeeded in consolidating his position further by forming a Rajput confederacy on the one hand and the Rajput – Mughal alliance on the other, in a bid to claim supremacy. His activities reduced the Sultanate of Delhi drastically and left the field open to Babar, who finally succeeded in defeating and killing both the serious rivals and thus established his own empire.

The socio – political structure did not undergo a substantial change during this period. Yet there are several instances when the Sultan took the ‘Rajputs’ in confidence and left the conquered territories like Ajmer and Ranthambore in their possession and also appointed them to high posts. A large number of Sanskrit inscriptions too took speak highly about the Khilji and the Tughluq Sultans and appointments of the Rajputs to the key posts such as wazir.

Some conversion of the important Rajput class such as the Bhatis, Kyam Khani Chauhans and the Khanzada chiefs of Mewar, are also known during this period on the basis of literary and epigraphic records. Probably these ‘secular’ elements were the forerunners of the ones that came into existence in the Mughal Empire.

 
 
 

Rajasthan Information: History - Culture - Heritage - Music - Dance - Art - Architecture - Society

Sources of the History and Culture of Rajasthan
(From earliest times up to 1200 A.D.)

Rajput - Muslims Relations
 (1200 – 1526 A.D.)

Architecture in Rajasthan (1200 – 1800 A.D.)

Kalibangan - the largest prehistoric site in Rajasthan

Excavations at Ahar (South Rajasthan)

Origin of the Rajputs

Origin of the Guhilas, their Rise and Bappa Rawal in Rajasthan

Moguls & Chauhans Resistance in Rajasthan

Rawal Ratan Singh of Rajasthan and his Resistance against the Turks

Maharana Kumbha (1433 – 1468) and his Political Achievements

Maharana Kumbha & his Cultural Achievements

Maharana Sanga & his Achievements (1508 – 1528 A.D.)

Rajasthani Paintings Schools

Merger of Rajput states in the Indian Union

Resistance of Mahararana Pratap of Mewar Against Akbar

Maratha - Rajputs Relations

Raja Man Singh of Amber

Rathore – Sisodia Alliance & Achievements of Raj Singh in Mewar

Role of Durga Dass Rathor in the history of Rajasthan

Sawai Jai Singh of Jaipur , Mughals and Marathas

Rajasthan’s Cultural Heritage

 
 

Rajasthan Tourism  & Travel Packages -  Rajasthan Vacations & Holidays

12 Days Rajasthan Desert Tour Package

13 Days Rajasthan Desert Holiday Tour

13 Days Rajasthan Round Trip

14 Days Rajasthan Tour Package

16 Days Cultural Rajasthan Tour

17 Days Colorful Rajasthan Tour

17 Days Vacations in Rajasthan

18 Days Rajasthan Tour Package

19 Days Rajasthan - North India Tour

28 Days Heritage Tour of Rajasthan

31 Days Holidays in Rajasthan

31 Days Rajasthan Wildlife Tour

 
                      Group Tours of Rajasthan                                                                     Car Rental in Rajasthan

 

Special Service for German Speaking Traveller - Rajasthan Group Travel with German Speaking Tour Guide !

Gruppenreisen - Durchführung aber schon ab 2 Teilnehmer garantiert !

 

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Indo Vacations®

(Recognized Rajasthan Tour Operator & Holiday Planner)
Address: Plot No.312
-313 A, Valmiki Marg, Raja Park, Jaipur 302004 (India)
Click here to see our Location Online

Network  for Rajasthan Tourism in following cities

Delhi – Agra – Bharatpur –– Ranthambore – Jaipur – Shekhawati – Bikaner – Jaisalmer – Jodhpur –– Ranakpur – Kumbhalgarh -
Mount Abu – Udaipur


Online Assistance via Skype: indo-vacations   (live video option available)

Tel.: 0091 141 2622098 (not to be used for general queries)
(We recommend and prefer email as the mode of communication for your initial queries .You will be informed later the unique tel. Number of your personal Tour Executive after we receive your query)
 
e-mails
: indovacations@gmail.com, info@indovacations.net
PS: if you do not hear from us within 48 hours please repeat your e-mail

 

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